Introduction to the Aquaculture Fish Farming Industry

The world is growing and the number of people is 3x higher. Introduction to Aquaculture Fish Farming is an urgent priority.

Southern Africa Youth Business is introducing Fish Fish Farming as an alternative to providing nutrition and to increase the supply chain in the food market.

The population is growing 3 times every day and there is more demand for food.

With drying economies and oceans running out of fishes.

This creates a demand for an alternative food supply chain.

The breeding and reproduction of Tilapia Fish is now an urgent priority for the world. To provide an alternative to the white meat market.

Southern Africa Youth Business is leading in training, support and construction of Fish Farms, the supply of fish Farming products and equipment.

We have been doing so since 2015. We have gained both practical and economical knowledge of fish farming.

As a fish farmer, it is important to consider the fish farming.

It is a tough industry. However, with patience, the rewards are amazing.

Introduction into Fish Farming is critical for the world to ensure that they can meet the demands for food supply.

By producing local will mean that fish will be cheaper and easily accessible within the communities.

At the moment a fish is one of the most expensive commodity.

The price is 3 times of a chicken.

If you enter a butchery or meat shop you will notice that beef is 70% then chicken 25% and fish is 5%.

If you compare the prices fish is very expensive depending on the quality and the taste you need.

At Southern Africa Youth Business we consult, train, advice, build and support you to make this a reality.

To get a quotation to send an email to or send us a WhatsApp to +27843137407

The definition of aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, mollusks,

crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some sort of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as through regular stocking, feeding or protection from predators. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated.


The definition does not include fisheries, which is the harvesting of organisms from the wild of which there is no ownership or intended intervention to increase production.

Hydroponics is the culture of terrestrial plants in water instead of soil and is not considered as aquaculture.

Compared to agriculture which is thought to have started about 10 000 years ago, the

practice of aquaculture has only been around for about 2 500 years. The first records of aquaculture are from China where carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured. Aquaculture in Africa has been practised since the time of the ancient Egyptians who farmed tilapia in ponds adjacent to the Nile River.

At present, the contribution of aquaculture to worldwide food production is considerably

less than that obtained from captive fisheries, although this is changing as feral stocks become depleted. For example, in 1999 the worldwide aquaculture production of animals and plants was 43 million metric tons compared to 94 million metric tons from fisheries. As many of the world’s fish stocks are in serious trouble due to over-fishing, aquaculture has been identified as a practice to provide protein that would otherwise have come from the ocean. In 1999, the contribution of aquaculture in sub-

Saharan Africa to the total world aquaculture production was less than 1% in terms of tonnage produced. Aquaculture in sub-Saharan Africa has immense potential as a means of increasing food security, and the aim of this manual therefore

is to provide information to prospective local fish farmers. In areas such as the Phillippines and Indonesia, China, Vietnam and Israel, aquaculture now produces a substantial and ever-increasing proportion of the fish consumed by their respective populations, together with a percentage that is exported to other countries.

Aquaculture should not be seen purely as a way of producing food. There are many forms of aquaculture that produce a marketable commodity that is not eaten but sold for cash, that can, in turn, be used to purchase food. A flourishing example of this is the ornamental fish trade, where fish are produced for sale

to the international pet trade. Often one or more species of fish are produced by small- scale family-owned farms which operate at a low technological level, but whose markets are guaranteed by the setting up of cooperatives that purchase the total farm production for an agreed price and do all the further marketing. This enables these small-scale operators to have an assured income, resulting in food security for their families.


Another often ignored form of aquaculture is the production of quality seed for sale to

other fish farms in the form of fingerlings. It is undeniable that one of the causes of repetitive failure in African pond aquaculture since 1945 is the widespread use of poor-quality founder stock. A frequent problem is the use of inbred

fish found in local ponds and then further inbred by so-called hatcheries and distributed to local production farms in the belief that the stock quality did not matter. There is a need for producing quality fingerlings with traits for fast growth, cold tolerance and even colour-enhancement to obtain greater market

acceptance and value, as has been done in the Philippines, with their GIFT tilapia (genetically improved farmed tilapia), a red-coloured and fast-growing strain of Oreochromis niloticus which outperforms the wild strains and is now almost universally used in aquaculture.


If water is available to grow fish, aquaculture offers more choice than farming on land. This is because there is almost always a suitable species of fish that can be cultured in the available conditions. However, it is important that only species with requirements compatible with the region’s environmental conditions are cultured. For example, trying to grow a coldwater species such as trout in warm water will not work; however, tilapia or catfish would do well in warm water.


Some of the reasons why a farmer or small landowner might start fish farming:

  • Fish are an important source of high-quality


  • Fish farming can help a farmer make better use of his/her land
  • Fish farming can provide extra

Consumption of fish per capita in sub-Saharan Africa has lagged behind that of the rest of the world, partly due to the low supply of fish products. However, aquaculture, especially fish culture (farming), is increasing. Commercial finfish culture  in fresh  or  brackish water  is  now  common,  with  Nigeria,  Ivory  Coast, Zimbabwe, Kenya and South Africa being the leading producers. Marine shrimp culture is concentrated in Madagascar, although a few farms are found in Sey- chelles, Mozambique and Kenya. Aquaculture is estimated to be 95 percent small- scale, characterized by one or more small ponds of 100 to 500 m2 in size, with fish ponds integrated into the rest of the agricultural activities.

Aquaculture is the production of all forms of aquatic animals such as fish and crustaceans or aquatic plants such as algae in fresh, brackish or salt water. In freshwater, mainly fish and some species of freshwater-prawns are raised. Al- though fish can also be raised by fencing-off or using net-cages in a swamp or a lake, the most efficient way to grow most fish is in a domesticated pond system. In this chapter, we will, therefore, discuss production practices based on this system.



Fish farming in ponds offers different advantages:

  • It is a suitable system for small-holder farmers especially in regions where water is available in sufficient quantities. Fish is an excellent source of pro- tein for the family and can be supplied or sold to other people in rural
  • It is complementary to other farming activities. Most cultured fish species are omnivorous meaning that they are not very selective regarding their They can be fed on-farm products such as rice bran, leftover sugar cane, soybean cake and other remnants of plant and food production. They also feed on insects, other fish, snails or other animals that are naturally available in the pond.
  • The water from the pond and pond sediments are rich in nitrogen and phosphorus and can be used to irrigate and fertilize the crop


However, fish pond production varies depending on the environment and the species involved. Generally, they can be categorised depending on size and/or intensity of management as follows:

  • Small-scale aquaculture includes extensive or semi-intensive pond production operated by the farmer and his/her household and integrated to varying degrees with other agricultural Tilapias and/or catfish (Clarias or Heterobranchus species) are commonly raised with some limited carp production, mostly Cyprinus carpio. This scale of production primarily relies on on-farm inputs including organic fertilizers and simple supplementary feeds, and most of the labour is provided by the family. Small-scale fish production generally requires minimum capital investment and is not mechanized. Most of the fish harvest is consumed by the family and any excesses are sold to neighbouring markets.
  • Commercial aquaculture involves large-scale production normally having a water surface area of about five hectares or Such production tends to be more capital intensive, relying on wage labour, external inputs and mechanization. Commercial aquaculture is common in the Ivory Coast (Chrysich- thys, Clarias and tilapia), Nigeria (Clarias, Heterobranchus, tilapia and carp), Zambia (tilapia and carp), Zimbabwe and Kenya (trout and tilapia), and South Africa (trout).

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