Any construction process introduces variables that affect the quality of the end product. These variables result from the application of materials, workers, plant and the site conditions. All material delivered are subject to handling and storage that could affect the physical characteristics of the material. Workers vary in their proficiency and application of methods. Machines experiences wear which introduces a new set of variables. Site conditions {temperature, humidity, dust and dirt) admit variations that could detract from the quality of the finished product.

Today the emphasis is on quality assurance, which means to achieve true product reliability. Reliability cannot be inspected into a product; it must be design and built in. We must ensure the performance of the product during its service.

Methodical control of quality can be achieved by means of four principal tools of the trade:

1. Standards And Specifications.

2. Inspection Procedures.

3. Sampling Procedures

4. Testing Procedures.

We will consider each of these principles separately.

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