Data Processing activities in Research

Collection: Data originates in the form of events transaction or some observations. This data is then recorded in some usable form. Data may be initially recorded on paper source documents and then converted into a machine usable form for processing.  Alternatively, data may be recorded by a direct input device in a paperless, machine-readable form.  […]

Data processing in Research

Data processing is crucial to any research program; even the best-designed questionnaire cannot make up for data that is incorrect or incomplete. The amount of data that is generated in the various industries could be overwhelming for the organisations to manage. This is where data processing comes into the picture. By implementing data processing techniques, the data that […]

Using the internet for research

There are many ways to locate information on the Internet. Common strategies for finding and using information on the Internet include Going Directly to a Known Site Looking Locally Using Internet Directories Using Search Engines Using Internet Bibliographies Asking Online Groups   Once you have located information on the Internet, you will need to evaluate […]

Conducting Research Mapping and scaling

Research Mapping is a valuable technique for visually displaying relationships and resources. In a water supply project, for example, mapping is invaluable. It can be used to present the placement of wells, distance of the homes from the wells, other water systems, etc. It gives researchers a good overview of the physical situation and may help to […]

Conducting a focus group discussion Research

A focus group discussion allows a group of 8 – 12 informants to freely discuss a certain subject with the guidance of a facilitator or reporter. (See Module 10C for a discussion of this technique.) 6. Projective techniques When a researcher uses projective techniques, (s)he asks an informant to react to some kind of visual or verbal […]

Interviewing in research

An INTERVIEW is a data-collection technique that involves oral questioning of respondents, either individually or as a group. Answers to the questions posed during an interview can be recorded by writing them down (either during the interview itself or immediately after the interview) or by tape-recording the responses, or by a combination of both. Interviews […]

Observation Research

OBSERVATION RESEARCH is a technique that involves systematically selecting, watching and recording behaviour and characteristics of living beings, objects or phenomena. Observation of human behaviour is a much-used data collection technique. It can be undertaken in different ways: Participant observation: The observer takes part in the situation he or she observes. (For example, a doctor hospitalised with […]

Using available information for research

Usually, there is a large amount of data that has already been collected by others, although it may not necessarily have been analysed or published. Locating these sources and retrieving the information is a good starting point in any data collection effort. For example, analysis of the information routinely collected by health facilities can be […]

Secondary Research

Secondary research involves processing data that has already been collected by previous researchers. It refers to consultation of previous studies and findings such as reports, press articles and previous market research projects in order to come to a conclusion. This type of research is based on information gathered from studies previously performed by government agencies, […]

Focus Group Research

A focus group research is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in an interactive group setting where participants are free to talk with other group members. The first focus […]

Questionnaire Interview Research

Questionnaires are an inexpensive way to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents. Often they are the only feasible way to reach a number of reviewers large enough to allow statistical analysis of the results. A well-designed questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both the overall performance of the test […]

Interview Research

Interview Research Interviews are among the most challenging and rewarding forms of measurement. They require a personal sensitivity and adaptability as well as the ability to stay within the bounds of the designed protocol. Below is a description of the preparation one need to do for an interview study and the process of conducting the […]